Holistic climate protection strategy through interventions in the water cycle, evaporation and clouds & protection against drought and floods incl.
holistic climate protection - now !
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For initial information please contact us:
matthias schuerle // climate protection hardware
76135 karlsruhe / germany
phone number: +49 (0) 721 82101196
Holistic, alternative climate protection strategy
Concept for lowering the rise in sea level and the earth temperature through regional protection against drought and flood disasters ... protects regions, Germany and the whole world.
- We turn the rising sea level into evaporative cooling, clouds and rain, - because water has become scarce worldwide and our blue planet is just losing the cloud & ice albedo - reflection, wisdom and speed are required.
With the model of an alternative, holistic climate protection strategy, we want to show that some of the most serious problems of climate change such as:
1. - Rapidly expanding deserts with forest and species extinction
2. - accelerated, rising sea levels and earth temperature
3. - groundwater levels falling in many places, drainage of the regions and continents
4. - Drought periods with temperature records and heavy rain events
are all associated with the presence or absence of water!
- We intervene with an ! additional ! alternative climate protection strategy in the levels of the rivers and oceans through water retention over the land areas.
- We cool the earth's temperature surprisingly easily with the help of an intensification of the earth's water cycles, evaporation and clouds.
CO² <--- out ! ... and H²O ---> in ! - to the atmosphere - is our supplementary strategy recommendation to the IPCC and for regions and cities around the world.
- In principle a simple, worldwide request to politics, agriculture, industry but also to private persons to build up extensive water reserves wherever possible in order to use them generously in plant growth, evaporation, clouds and "water cooling" during periods of drought in spring and summer. "
As an explanatory introduction to this alternative, holistic climate protection, the question arises:
How do we bring falling groundwater levels in many places, the worldwide phenomenon of water shortage and rising sea levels together? - What specific measures and changes will protect us from drought, flood events and further increases in earth temperatures in the future?
Many people in charge in science and politics usually answer this question to ...
- that only the rapid reduction in emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2 alone can stop the climate catastrophe and other tipping elements and ...
- that humans can not influence the climate by a different strategy.
A majority of climate scientists are also convinced:
- The rise in sea level is unstoppable and also irreversible, ...
- That humans cannot directly influence the climate, solar radiation, rain, clouds and the water vapor content of the atmosphere ...
We are countering this with our alternative climate protection strategy - and claim:
- "Rising CO² concentrations are undisputedly the No. 1 cause and trigger of climate change - but fewer global CO2 emissions (even a dreamed net zero by 2050) are not really a cooling, negative radiative forcing ... ... while our holistic climate protection strategy can quickly compensate for the current annual temperature increase of ~ 0.015 ° C or ~ 0.037W / m² with a small increase in global cloud albedo / cover of 0.185%. "
- "Water vapor (and not CO2) is and has always been the most important & strongest greenhouse gas and, due to the resulting albedo of the clouds, has a strong cooling effect on the earth temperature (-19W / m²) and thus represents a powerful, negative, cooling radiative forcing. "
- "The lowering of the sea level rise & the earth temperature are directly related to the global radiation balance and the water cycles of the earth."
- "Not only the fastest possible lowering of CO² emissions, but also a globally changed handling of water and an improved water management should immediately be defined and implemented as climate protection."
- "That the rise in sea level, the rise in the earth's temperature, drought and flood events can be compensated and defused solely through a globally staged and practiced rain and water retention and a switch from groundwater use to the use of flowing waters."
- "And of course humans can influence the climate, sea level and the water vapor content of the atmosphere - otherwise the earth would not be in a man-made climate catastrophe that is already taking place."
In the future, many regions around the world will be affected by increasing water scarcity from AGW.
But almost 50,000 km³ of fresh water still flows into the oceans via the rivers.
I have not the slightest doubt that humanity in a global effort is capable of absorbing an "additional" amount
of water (~ 1335km³ = 3.7mm annual sea level rise) from the rivers of this world or withhold corresponding amounts of global precipitation over urban land areas. The global soil moisture (5500km³), the renewable groundwater (625,000km³) and deeper aquifers (2,200,000km³) are decreasing reservoirs, which due to their size are suitable for an annual inflow of 3.7mm SLR for decades.
The first major human interventions in the natural water balance of the regions took place long before industrialization (1750) ~ 8000 years ago. With settlement, first wells, clearing by fire and the steady increase in surface sealing, canalization of rivers, drainage of moors, expansion of agricultural and forestry areas, ... etc., humanity itself is responsible for this water shortage. Water pollution, waste, overuse of natural water reservoirs and the resulting desertification exacerbate this emergency.
Across the global land areas, the mainly CO²-induced average temperature increase since 1750 is already ~ 1.5 ° C, which should actually increase evapotranspiration there by ~ 10%.
Where water is becoming increasingly scarce, also due to increased evaporation, less and less water can evaporate and thus severely disrupt and worsen the transport of energy from the surface into the atmosphere.
Our crazy diamond heat engine consumes approx. 28% (38W / m²) of the solar power arriving on the land surface for the latent, non-temperature-increasing energy transport into the atmosphere.
Above the oceans this proportion is approx. 58% (100W / m²), as the amount of evaporated water per m² is about three times as high as on land.
This difference in energy transport from the surface to the atmosphere (also) explains the different warming rates of oceans (+ 0.77 ° C) and land surfaces (+ 1.44 ° C). Oceans cool themselves down due to the high rate of evaporation, similar to the ancient clay jars used by the Romans.
We have influenced climate every day for centuries, not only through constantly increasing CO² emissions, but also long before industrialization by extensive and far-reaching interventions in the water balance of natural - as well as agricultural - and urban - land areas.
Millions of km² of agricultural area, mostly (rain) forest eliminated by slash and burn, together with ~ 1.5 million km² of urban sealed area in the course of the centuries inevitably led to less and less water being evaporated over these areas and precipitation and service water quickly over the Drains and rivers into the sea.
The long-term, global drainage of moors and wetlands and canalization of rivers also significantly reduces their ability to store and evaporate water. Globally expanding deserts are rapidly increasing these areas with reduced evaporation. Drought periods in summer, even up to near the Arctic Circle, now produce less and less evaporation and clouds over the land areas, especially when the highest solar radiation acts.
The flow of energy from the surface in height and width takes place less and less by means of water vapor, but increasingly in the form of hot and dry air. Moist rainforests transport clouds and rain inland - conversely, deserts spread blue skies and drought - as far as Brandenburg.
The extent of the originally CO2-induced surface warming depends, however, on how much and in what ratio it is offset by local cooling factors
- namely latent cooling through evaporation of water (water cooling)
- and cooling through the sensible exchange of dry heat between the land surface and above lying air (air cooling).
The atmospheric warming caused by stronger, sensible heat flow and unsaturated with water vapor also inhibits cloud formation and can thus lead to a further increase in temperature and drying of the land surface due to a cloudless sky. A highly dangerous feedback effect which, compared to the ice-albedo effect, could be many times more fast-acting and thus stronger.
In order to clarify how both heat flows interact, we ask, what does 82W / m² global evapotranspiration mean in a desert without water?
Without any water, the irradiating solar energy will only be transformed into an increase in the temperature of the ground, air and air movement (convection / wind). Stronger updrafts with less and less water vapor in their luggage can also explain an average increase in the height of the clouds over the last few decades.
Therefore, the sensible heat flows, the latent evapotranspiration energy and reflective cloud albedo in the different radiation balances of all_sky // clear_sky & land // ocean are particularly important factors for our climate protection concept.
A large part of the evaporation energy specified in the averaged global radiation balance (all_sky) with ~ 82W / m² is converted into water vapor over the area of 71% oceans and the volume of evaporation there increases with increasing air and water temperatures approximately according to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation But over the 29% land area, the (non-) existing soil moisture or the presence or absence of water relativizes what is happening in many places.
Wild, M., Hakuba, M.Z., Folini, D. et al. The cloud-free global energy balance and inferred cloud radiative effects: an assessment based on direct observations and climate models. Clim Dyn 52, 4787-4812 (2019).
The aim of our alternative strategy is therefore to use the strong cooling effect of clouds (-19W/m²) - and to produce evaporation and clouds from the retained runoff by rivers with the volume of sea level rise (3.7mm = 1335km³).
A volume that corresponds to 9L/m² land area = ~ 1 -1.5% of the annual precipitation over land, and thus leads to a correspondingly higher cloud cover over land areas in spring and summer. Multiplication effects that can arise from the fact that these clouds are more likely to fall over a land area and form more clouds are not (yet) taken into account.
We therefore estimate the cooling radiative forcing resulting from additional evaporation due to improving cloud cover/albedo over land areas to be around -0.05 W/m² and year. This cooling radiative forcing would halve the current Earth Energy Imbalance over land (EEI/land) of 0.1W/m² and mitigate future heat records. A corresponding change in the energy balance over land areas looks like this:
The additional annual evaporation (+ 0.7W / m² = 9L / m²) also improves the energy transport from the land surface to the atmosphere by an average of 6.12 KWh / m². The use of additional "artificial irrigation" and retention measures with an annual, global total volume of 1335km³ = (3.7mm SLR) can reduce the predominantly CO²-related global warming over land with ~ -0.15W / m² "global water cooling" by approx 0.07 ° C / year. If you take this additional volume from flowing waters and / or bank filtrate instead of using groundwater ... the rise in sea level has thus also stopped ! The planned and required global measures and changes in water management are then always an excellent regional protection against periods of drought, but at the same time also against heavy rain and flooding. Assuming that this water volume (1335km³) is completely withdrawn from global runoff and fed to transpiration through plants or groundwater reservoirs and soil moisture, there is a potential for additional CO² absorption of ~ 4.9 - 9.8Gt / year (C3 -C4 plants bind 1-2kg carbon / m³ water). Overall, it can be assumed that biodiversity will more likely benefit from additional amounts of water over land and counteract the extinction of species.
Best estimates for the magnitude of the annual mean energy balance components averaged over land (upper panel) and oceans (lower panel), together with their uncertainty ranges, representing climatic conditions at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The surface thermal upward flux contains both the surface thermal emission and a small contribution from the reflected part of the downward thermal radiation. Units Wm−2
Wild, M., Folini, D., Hakuba, M.Z. et al. The energy balance over land and oceans: an assessment based on direct observations and CMIP5 climate models. Clim Dyn 44, 3393-3429 (2015).
Any precipitation that falls on the land area can be divided into:
Precipitation = evaporation + soil moisture, groundwater + runoff into rivers and the seas
The oceans of this world get their supply through the runoff of global river discharge (total 49500km³ / incl. Greenland, Antarctica).
& the precipitation over the seas.
The only factors that could cause runoff and sinking sea levels would be higher evaporation over the oceans,
or a correspondingly reduced discharge of the rivers with the volume of the annual sea level rise (1335km³),
on which our alternative, holistic climate protection strategy is based.
This concept of "global water cooling" becomes complete when this amount of water retained in front of the rivers is converted into globally cooling evaporation and clouds, predominantly in summer.
Distributed as a constant flow over the global land area to be rewetted, the sea level rise of 1335km³ annually loses its horror and volume to only 0.28L / km² and second. That corresponds to an ! additional ! annual water volume of 9L / m² (= ~ 1 - 1.5% of the annual rainfall) and the corresponding quantity "evaporation" in the global energy balance over land areas increases by ~ 0.7W / m², since 1kg of water is used for evaporation ~ 0.68KWh required as amount of energy. (9L = 6.12KWh / 365/24 = 0.7W / m²)
Global agriculture, as the largest consumer of water, currently uses around 50 million km² (one third of the global land area) per year around 2900 km³ of water for irrigation. On only ~ 45% of these agricultural areas, the water management would have to be changed from groundwater use to flowing waters and / or river filtrate in order to stop the rise in sea levels and to replenish soil moisture and groundwater reserves.
In addition to other possible savings, reprocessing and / or the above-mentioned changes in water consumption in industry ... ... also global precipitation (800-850mm) over the urban areas (= ~ 1% of the land area / ~ 1.5 million km² ) on average approx. the volume of the annual sea level rise (2018) of ~ 3.7mm = 1335km³ = 9mm over the global land area. On the global scale, rain barrels, cisterns or rain retention basins with an overflow onto unsealed terrain alone have a potential of approx. 1-2mm sea level rise.
The ingenious water management of a pre-Inca culture, which already 1500 years ago in one of the driest deserts in the world (Atacama), with "Amunas" without any electr. pumps or other modern aids have wrested water from the land - it is essential to mention here as an example:
Further, possible extraction quantities outside the drought periods from running waters (total ~ 49500km³) for rewetting of moors, wetlands and forests with an even greater total potential are shown in the following graph (white dashed) as an example for Austria and the Danube.
What alternative, holistic climate protection can look like in the region is shown in Karlsruhe / Germany.
On the map you can see a 3.2 km long aqueduct between Lake Ferma and Lake Epple. The diameter of the water pipe is approx. 50-80cm and should be able to transport up to 1000L / sec at peak loads. It connects 2 quarry ponds whose water quality with "good bathing quality" is measured as being relatively high. A discharge of Rhine water, which is set up for the rural / urban district of Karlsruhe with the following parameters
- - Area administrative district = ~ 1250km²,
- - Inhabitants = ~ 750,000,
- - agricultural. Area = ~ 500km²,
- - forest and green areas = ~ 700km²,
- - Built-up, urban sealed area = ~ 50km²
- - Average discharge volume / year = 13.35 million m³ = 423L/sec
- an additional 27L / m² for Karlsruhe agriculture in a summer drought.
With this diversion, the urban and rural district of Karlsruhe fulfills three times the globally required average of 9L / m² to compensate for the rise in sea level.
The investment costs of the described Rhine water retention measure are estimated at € 3,5 - 7,5 million and upscaled to 125 million. km² of land area with 7.5 billion inhabitants, this means total global costs of an estimated € 400-750 billion and € 10 to € 100 per person on earth for an infrastructure that is estimated and built up over decades and that is able to cope with every m³ of water that is retained can be sold, financed.
The 12.5 km² roof areas in the same region have a similarly high retention potential of ~ 10.6 million m³ with ~ 850mm annual rainfall, if they are equipped with rain barrels & overflow on unsealed terrain.
On average, around 49500 km³ of river water flows into the oceans every year.
If mankind were to withhold or remove ~ 2.7% of this river water on a global average over the year in all catchment areas of the rivers around the world in order to stabilize the groundwater level and aquifers, the rise in sea levels would be stopped solely by the lower runoff of the rivers
This extraction ideally takes place as high as possible "up" near the smaller tributaries, where the water is still clean and a diversion through usable meters in altitude does not require any use of energy or can even be used for small hydropower.
Then mankind would have enough water reserves in many places to generously bridge the summer droughts with artificial irrigation. The additional evaporation of water over land areas such as agriculture, moors and possibly forests, etc. will increase the probability of precipitation and cloud formation, especially in summer, and the resulting improvement in the albedo will now have a cooling effect on earth temperatures. Evaporation and clouds generated over land areas are more likely (than over the oceans) to hit a land area as precipitation and thus create a certain multiplication effect.
The most important positive effects of the alternative climate protection strategy are:
- - stabilized sea level
- - less flood damage
- - better resilience to drought or lowering of low water levels
- - thicker potatoes and farmer. Income
- - lower water prices
- - an additional cooling capacity of 680KWh for the ground and the surrounding air in summer for every m³ of water removed
- - higher cloud formation especially in summer and thus a higher albedo over the global land areas with a cooling effect on the average global temperature of the earth
- - Maintaining or improving the CO² assimilation of terrestrial plants (1-2Kg carbon bond / m³ transpired H²O) = 4.9 - 9.8Gt CO² per year
- - less wind erosion, species loss ... and much more
Artificial irrigation and an increase in the cloud albedo is a climate protection concept that is independent of CO² emissions, which unfortunately is easily lost in the general hustle and bustle of the climate gas CO² at the international climate summits, remains undervalued and, unfortunately, is calculated, discussed and implemented far too seldom.
Further climate science, texts and graphics to explain:
- Global development of evaporation, precipitation, groundwater levels and global runoff
- Evidence and causes of a globally decreasing cloud cover
- A better understanding of our holistic climate protection strategy ...
can be found here:
Holistic, alternative climate protection strategy concept for lowering sea level rise and the earth temperature & regional protection against drought and flood disasters ... protects regions, Germany and the whole world.
---further texts and graphics ---
Further information on the development of latent heat fluxes and drainage of the continents using gravitational measurements (GRACE / FO) can be found here:
Evaporation increasing by + 2.3mm / year, which is not fully compensated by increased precipitation of+ 1mm / year. Decreasing runoff through the rivers of-1.01mm / year and falling groundwater level -0.75mm / year quantify the drainage of the Continents.
The authors estimate a "statistically significant" increase in evapotranspiration of around 10%above the long-term average. During the same period, rainfall only increased by 3% to and the discharge by 6%.
What is noticeable here is a simultaneous decrease in the relative humidity and the Cloud cover, which certainly correlates with a general increase in the number of hours of sunshine.
Global time series of annual average relative humidity for the land (green line), ocean (blue) and global average (dark blue), relative to 1981-2010. The two-standard deviation ranges for uncertainty are shown combining the observation, sampling and coverage uncertainty.
- The 6th work report of the IPCC / WG1 deals in chapter 7.2.1 with the strong cooling net effect of clouds on the global radiation balance ( ~ -19W / m²).
In chapter 126.96.36.199.3 the warming feedback from clouds to a 1 ° C increase in earth temperature is limited with + 0.42Wm-2 ° C-1.
This warming feedback is mainly caused by a globally lower cloud cover (minus 2 - 2.5%) and higher temperature gradients (decrease in temperature with altitude).
- Climate models estimate the global average residence time of water in the atmosphere approx. 8.5 days based on ERA interim data.
Recent studies show the strong influence of additional or absent water and evaporation rates on cloud formation, temperature and radiation balance etc. in the observed regions.
Distinct Impacts of Land Use and Land Management on Summer TemperaturesChanges in summer monthly mean cloud cover [in%, (A, B)] and total precipitation [in mm, (C, D)] due to historical land use (left) and irrigation (right). Stipplingindicates significance at the 95% confidence level.
Changes in summer daytime latent heat [LE in W / m2, (A, B)], sensible heat [H in W / m2, (C, D)], and ground heat [G in W / m2, ( E, F)] fluxes due to historicalland use (left) and irrigation (right). Note that the scale of the label bar for G is different than those for LE and H. Stippling indicates significance at the 95%confidence level.
In particular, the last findings and graphics by Liang Chen and Paul A. Dirmeyer reinforce our water/evaporation & cloud based climate protection strategy on the assumption that additional irrigation and evaporation leads to increasing cloud formation and achievable cooling effects.
Even if the post refers exclusively to agricultural areas, we keep the knowledge gained definitely transferable to forest / natural areas and urban areas.
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